X–ray Diffractometer (Rigaku MiniFlex 600)


The Miniflex 600 is a benchtop general purpose X-ray diffractometer that can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials. It is an essential tool in phase identification and quantification and crystal structure characterization for a wide range of applications such as materials, geology, forensic, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental studies.

Principle of Operation

The X–ray is generated in a Cu x–ray tube, filtered by monochromator to increase sensitivity, collimated to concentrate, and is directed towards the sample. The X–ray is diffracted by the atomic layers of the crystal, and the diffraction pattern is used for the analysis based on the Bragg’s diffraction law (nλ=2d sinθ). The 2θ positions of the diffraction peaks provide a unique fingerprint of the phases present and the intensity and spread of the peaks are used to obtain the quantity of each phase based on the Rietveld Quantitative Analysis method.


The system is equipped with a 2.0 kW Cu X–ray tube, NaI scintillation counter detector, graphite monochromator, and an automated 6–position sample changer with sample spinner. Instrument control and data processing are carried out using a PC. Rigaku’s PDXL Comprehensive Analysis Package is used for data reduction, background elimination, search and peak match with ICDD PDF databases, crystallite size determination, % crystallinity determination, and quantitative analysis.